Haplogroup E1b1 or Mediterenean and Sub-Saharan DNA Comparison
E1b1 (E-P2) the most dominant Y-chromosome haploid in Africa. E-P2 is likely to have originated in the Ethiopian highlands of East Africa, as this is the place with the high frequency of ancestral sub-clades of this haplogroup. E-P2 diverged into two predominant sub-clades; E1b1a (E-V38) and E1b1b (E-M215) approximately 24-27,000 years ago.
Haplogroup E1b1a is the main haplogroup in sub-Saharan Africa. Over 80% of the males in West Africa fall under this haplogroup. and others suggest that it likely originated in and expanded from West Africa (i.e., the Sudan Belt) during the last 20,000 to 30,000 years based on the fact that the frequency and divergence of E1b1a in this region are notably the highest found.
With respect to E1b1a, a west-to-east as well as a south-to-north clonal distribution exists, that is, the diversity and frequency increases as you move from East and North Africa to West and South of Africa. That’s why it is observed in low frequencies in the Horn of Africa, North Eastern Africa, and Southwest Asia, where the E1b1b haplogroup has its lowest frequencies, and its meager presence in these areas is generally characteristic to the slave commerce and/or the Bantu expansion through past migrations.
E1b1a is the single most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among people of Sub-Saharan African descent both inside and outside of Africa. It has been observed at frequencies of 58%-60% of African American populations.
The E1b1a sub clades E1b1a7 and E1b1a8 are widely found throughout sub-Saharan Africans. However, the sub-clade E1b1a9 has been found only in one Gambian and also the sub-clades E1b1a2, E1b1a3, E1b1a4, E1b1a5, and E1b1a6 are quite rare as well.
By Alexandra Rosa, Mark A Jobling, Carolina Ornelas, António Brehm, and Richard Villems – BMC Evol Biol. 2007; 7: 124. Published online 2007 July 27, doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-124., CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10775846
E1b1b is found at high frequencies outside Europe, over 80% in Morocco and East Africa Somalia and Ethiopia males makes about 40% to 80%. North African countries of Tunisia, (70%), Algeria (60%) and Egypt (40%). In the Middle East region; Jordan (25%), Palestine (20%), and Lebanon (17.5%)
On the European continent, Eastern and Central Europe, Kosovo has the highest concentration over 45%, Albania and Montenegro (both 27%), Bulgaria (23%), Macedonia and Greece (both 21%), the Island of Cyprus and Sicily (both 20%), South Italy (18.5%), Serbia (18%) and Romania (15%).
Distribution map of haplogroup E1b1b in Europe, North Africa and the Near East
Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly known as E3b) represents the last major direct exodus from Africa into Europe believed to have appeared first in the Horn of Africa about 26,000 years ago and scattered to North Africa and the Near East during the late Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. E1b1b lineages are closely linked to the diffusion of Afro-asiatic languages.
The highest genetic diversity of haplogroup E1b1b is noted in Northeast Africa region in Ethiopia and Somalia, which also have the monopoly of older and rarer sub-clades like M281, V6 or V92.
More specifically, Ethiopia and Somali males belong mostly to the V22 and V32 sub-clades, but possess also a minority of M81, M123 and V42 sub clades.
Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA)
The frequency of E sub-clades varies geographically over time due to founder effects in Neolithic populations, i.e. the migration of a small band of settlers carrying among them whom one paternal lineage was much more common than any others.
E1b1b Famous individuals
The great Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio (1571-1610), credited for his use of photo-sensitive silver solution to develop art, had his remains excavated to establish the circumstances surrounding his mysterious death at the age of 38 and his DNA was compared to modern carriers of the same surname. The study concluded that he belonged to sub-clade E1b1b1.
The Harvey Y-DNA Genetic Project managed to backtrack the ancestry and classify the Y haplogroup of William Harvey (1578 -1657), credited with a complete description of the systemic circulation and the effects of blood being pumped by the heart to the body.
Gérard Lucotte et al. (2012) recovered the DNA of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte from beard hair follicles and compared his Y-DNA to his present-day descendant, Charles Napoléon. It was established that they both belonged to haplogroup E-M34, a sub-clade which is thought to have reached Mediterranean Europe from the Levant during the Neolithic period.
Inventors of the world’s first successful airplane, the Wright Brothers, allegedly they descended from Robert Wright of Brook Hall, Essex, England, belonged to haplogroup E-V13.
Albert Einstein, acclaimed theoretical physicist, is presumed to have belonged to Y-haplogroup E-Z830 based on the results from a patrilineal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein, his great-grand-father.
Relatives of Adolf Hitler were tested by the Geneticist Ronny Decorte and he concluded that the Reich’s Fürher belonged to haplogroup E1b1b. Ironically, this haplogroup believed to be at the forbearer of Afro-Asiatic languages, which includes the Semitic languages and peoples, Hitler despised so much.
36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) was identified as a member of haplogroup E1b1b1 via the Johnson/Johnston/Johnstone DNA Surname Project.
Sir David Attenborough (b. 1926), the famous English broadcaster and naturalist, explained in the Tree of Life how the Attenborough belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1.
Comparison of the Sub-clades
The Primary clade E1b1, also known as E-P2 or E-PN2, includes the majority of all E lineages existing today. Today there are two major surviving extensions of this haplogroup, E1b1b (E-M215) and E1b1a (E-V38).
E1b1a is the primary sub-clade of E, found in West Africans and many populations of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa and observed in lower frequencies in North Africa and parts of West Asia.
E1b1b is the most common E sub-clade amongst East African Maasai, Somalis, Eritreans, Ethiopians also North African Sudanese, Egyptians, Berbers and Arabs. It’s also common in Western Asia, from where it spread into the Balkans and then further into Europe.
25 May 2017 / rarikola / 1