Y-DNA Haplogroup D – Tibet , Japan , Andaman Islands
Haplogroup D (M174) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Both D and E have their lineages exhibiting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) M168, present in all Y-chromosome haplogroups with an exception of haplogroup A and B. The origins of Haplogroup D is believed to be Asia some 60,000 years ago and while they possess a distinct polymorphism with haplogroup E, no D chromosomes have been found outside Asia.
Haplogroup D (M174) is found in high frequencies among Tibetan, the Japanese archipelago, and the Andaman Islands populations, although curiously not found in India. The Ainu people of Japan are observed to possess exclusively Haplogroup D (M174) chromosomes.
It is also found between low and moderate frequencies in Central Asian and North East Asian populations as well as the Han and Mia-Yao people of the People’s Republic of China. Also found among several minority groups of Sichuan and Yunnan who speak the Tibeto-Burman dialect and reside near Tibet.
Haplogroup D-M174 is also remarkable for its extreme geographic differentiation. With a distinct subset of the Haplogroup, chromosomes found exclusively in every population containing a large percentage of individuals with their Y-chromosomes belonging to Haplogroup D-M174.
The Haplogroup D (M174) found among the Japanese Archipelago populations (the major subclade haplogroup D-M55 a.k.a. haplogroup D2) are selectively distinctive, comprising a complex of more than five individual mutations along an internal branch of the Haplogroup phylogeny, thereby distinguishing them clearly from the Haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes usually found among the populations of Tibet and Andaman Islanders. This provides evidence that the Y-chromosome major subclade Haplogroup D-M55 was the modal haplogroup in the ancestral population credited for developing the Japanese islands prehistoric Jōmon culture.
D-M174 (without positive-tested subclades)
Found among the Andaman Islanders in high frequency and also in the Northeast India Tibetan tribes. It is also found in fewer frequencies among the Altayans, particularly in Kulada and Kosh-Agach region.
Perhaps the most common of Haplogroup D (M174), major subclade Haplogroup D-M15, presently known as D1a1 and was formerly called D1, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup descended of the greater Haplogroup D-M174.
Its closest relative phylogenetically is found among the Japanese, Central Asia, and the Andaman Islands peoples in the Bay area of Bengal. Haplogroup D-M15 is distantly related to the Haplogroup E-M96, which has its major subclades common throughout Africa, West Asia, and even Europe.
Haplogroup D-M15 is widely distributed throughout populations that dwell around the Himalayas, spreading out of the region. However, it is not found among the populations located in the south and southwest India. The distribution of this Haplogroup is also limited in Southeast since it is found at low frequency among populations that speak Tibeto-Burman or Miao–Yao languages only, both of which have northern ancestral ties.The Haplogroup D-M15 distribution is much more frequent in the north because it is found nearly in all the Central Asia and Northeast Asia region, particularly south of the Russian border populations, although generally at a low frequency of 2% or less. As one approaches the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in Western China, there is a dramatic spike in the frequency of Haplogroup D-M15.
Among certain local populations in Qinghai, the frequency of this haplogroup has been found to reach as high as 100% which gradually fades as one moves south through the Tibetan territory populations, as with the case of Haplogroup O3, known to be the most common haplogroup among the Han people of China and also relatively found among populations of Southeast Asia, and becomes dominant.
Haplogroup D-M15 strives in occurrence at an overall low frequency to the east among the Han people; however, there are certain indications that D-M15 frequency among the Hans varies significantly between localities. A secondary, but minor spike of Haplogroup D-M15 frequency occurs again in Korea, reaching as high as 5% to 8%; but it does not stretch further into Manchuria to the north or even Japan to the east. This probably corroborates documented historical accounts of immigration from the country of Qin in the far west of ancient China and on to the country of Jinhan, believed to have been located somewhere in the southern half region of the Korean Peninsula.
Ancient Chinese historians are infamous for their habit of drawing forced connections between modern peoples and putative ancestors of antiquity. Nevertheless, the genetic evidence on this occasion seems to provide some independent corroboration to the story.
The ultimate origins of this haplogroup are speculated to share a recent common ancestor with the other D-M174 lineage members, not tested as part of another branch on modern populations of Central Asia.
Subsequently, this major subclade Haplogroup has been frequently found among Southwestern China Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations. Including the Qiang, Tibetans, Yao people, inhabiting Northeastern Guangxi. Moreover, with a moderate distribution throughout the regions of Central, East and Continental Southeast Asia (Indochina).
This haplogroup is found at high frequency among the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese males, and also the Ryukyuans.
Haplogroup D-P47 is found with high frequency among the Pumi and Naxi populations. Also among the Tibetans, this major subclade occurs in a moderate distribution in the Central Asia region.
9 May 2017 / rarikola / 1