Northern Eurasia – Y HAPLOGROUP N-M231
The Y-chromosome Haplogroup N (M231) is typical of Northern Eurasia region and Northern Europe as well and is defined by the presence of the genetic marker M231.
Haplogroup N is a descended from Haplogroup NO and is purported to have first appeared in Siberia, Mongolia, or China approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. This haplogroup transport across Eurasia is believed to be by large-scale human migrations of peoples who were speakers of Uralic languages, as claimed after the last Ice Age as the climate warmed in the Holocene. However, the basal paragroup N* has only been observed in low frequencies, in populations that are indigenous to China and Cambodia. Haplogroup N (M231) have been found at low frequency in Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Balkans. These factors tend to suggest a possibility of its origin in East Asia or Southeast Asia.
The absence of Haplogroup N in Americas indicates that the spread happened after the submerging of the Beringia.
Haplogroup boasts a wide geographical territorial distribution, throughout Europe, not forgetting its appearance in other areas of the far eastern half of the longitudinal hemisphere, encompassing South East Asia, the Pacific, Southwest Asia and Southern Europe.
The highest frequency is observed among the Finns and Baltic people of Northern Europe. In western Siberia, the Ob-Ugric and Northern Samoyedic peoples. Also been observed in the Siberian Turkic- speaking Yakuts.
Haplogroup N Major Subclades
This haplogroup comprises of Y-chromosomes that display only the M231 mutation that defines Haplogroup N-M231 but does not display other mutations that define major subclade N1. This basal haplogroup has been found in low frequencies in China and Cambodia.
This major subclade is defined by the presence of the genetic marker M128 and was first identified in a sample from Japan since this haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup NO and also in a sample from Central Asia and Siberia. This was done in a preliminary survey of worldwide Y-DNA variation.
Subsequently, this major subclade occurs in low frequency in some samples of the Manchu people, Sibe people, also the Manchurian Evenks, Koreans, Bouyei people, northern Han Chinese, and some Turkic peoples of Central Asia.
A sister subclade included a number of Han Chinese, a Mongol, a Tibetan and a Qiang.
This major subclade is typical of Northern Samoyedic peoples. It is also found at low to moderate frequency among other populations of Uralic peoples, Turkic peoples, the Mongols, Tungusic peoples, and the Eskimos. However, it is found in high frequencies among northwest Siberian populations in the Nganasan, in the Enets and the Tundra Nenets.
In Europe, the N2 bearers have their highest frequency among Volga-Uralic populations. Occurs at a marginal frequency in Finland, but among the Vepsas it is frequent, a small Finnish population living in close proximity to Finns, Karelians, and Estonians. Haplogroup N2 shows an irregular frequencies pattern, extending westwards as far as Vepsas and Karelians in the Baltic Sea. This major subclade has subgroups branching out as well; N2* and N2a (P63).
Major subclade N3 is typical of the Sakha and Uralic peoples. Throughout Northern Eurasia, it is moderately distributed. This is the most frequent major subclade of the Haplogroup N (M231). There is a possibility that it arose from a region in present-day China and experienced a series of bottlenecks in Siberia and a further secondary expansion in Eastern Europe. This major subclade is approximately 14,000 years old.
This major subclade reaches high frequencies in populations of Siberia region, close to 90%. Found among the Yakuts, a Turkic people who reside in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. This is supposed from their descent from horse-riders from the Cis-Baikal area. On the contrary, it is non-existent in the Yakuts’ neighboring ethnic groups like the Tungusic tribe. This subclade has also been detected in low frequencies in Hmong Daw people of Lao, samples from Seoul in South Korea and also in Japan from Tokushima.
This major subclade has several sub-branches as well;
Has a high frequency in Norther Europe than in Siberia. Approximately 60% of Finns possess this sub-branch of major Subclade N3 and 40% of the Latvians, Lithuanians and also 35% among the Estonians.
First expanded in South Siberia, approximately 10,000 years ago and spread into Northern Europe 2,000 years later (8,000 years ago).
A young sub-cluster that originated in South Siberia, in the Baikal region approximately 4,000 years ago.
29 Oct 2016 / rarikola / 1