Haplogroup R1a -Eastern Europe
Haplogroup R1a branched off from R1 with its origins believed to be probably in the southern Russia/Siberia or Central Asia. From these regions, R1a could have migrated to southward first, through Central Asia and then Iran before settling in Eastern Europe. This Paleolithic migration to Iran is supported by the presence of subclades of R1a such as M420, which is very old in this region, particularly in the Zagros Mountains.
R1a-L664 subclade is dominant in West Germany, British Isles and Low Countries and one of the most recent people with this haplogroup is Sir Francis Drake from Elizabethan era. Subclade R1a-Z645 is found in individuals living in South Asia and Central Europe. R1a-Z283 is a subclade mainly found in Central and East European inhabitants. R1a-Z284 is a subclade found among Scandinavian population with much of its concentration being Norway inhabitants and in places that were colonized by Norwegian Vikings such as Ireland, England and Scotland. David Hume (1711-1776), the Scottish historian, philosopher and economist belonged to R1a-Z284 haplogroup. Another prominent individual in the recent history that belongs to R1a-Z284 is Tom Hanks that is well known for the roles he played in films such as Forrest Gump, Catch Me if You Can, Saving Private Ryan, Da Vinci Code and Philadelphia belongs to the haplogroup R1a-Z284 as the descendent of William Hanks of Richmond, Virginia.
R1a-M458 is a mainly Slavic subclade found among the populations in Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic and in the south east Ukraine as well as northwest Russia. The R1a-Z280 is a Balto-Slavic marker whose populations are distributed in several parts of Eastern and Central Europe with exception to the Balkans and its clusters are Baltic, East Slavic, Polish, Pomeranian, Carpathian, Czechoslovak, East-Alpine and so forth. Max von Sydow, a Swedish actor belongs to the haplogroup R1a-Z280 (Pomeranian P269 subclade). R1a-Z93 is dominant in parts of Asia such as South Asia, Central Asia and Southwest Asia specifically among the Ashkenazi Jews. Benjamin Netanyahu, a famous Israeli Prime Minister belongs to haplogroup R1a-Z93 (Jewish Y2630 subclade). The R1a-Z93 subclade is a marker of populations such as Persians, Indo-Aryans, Medes, Tatars or Mitanni and predominant among genetic pool of Arabs and Jews while its subclade R1a-M434 is found among Pakistan population and with small percentage traces among the population in Oman.
R1a is a dominant haplogroup found among the European language speakers in the northern and eastern parts of Europe that later evolved into the Thracian, Indo-Iranian and Slavic branches. Currently, there are high frequencies of R1a in Poland having 57.5% of its population, the Ukraine, the population of R1a ranges from 40% to 65% while European Russia has 45% to 65% of its population being R1a. In Belarus, R1a constitutes 51% of its population while Slovakia has 42% of its population being R1a, in Latvia 40% of its population is R1a, Lithuania has 38% of its population R1a. Around 34% of people living in the Czech Republic are R1a and Hungary 32% of its population is R1a. The R1a population in Norway is 27%, Austria has a 26% of its population being R1a, Croatia has a 24% of its population R1a, northeast Germany has 24% of its population R1a, Sweden has 19% of its population being R1a and Romania has 18% of its population being R1a.
R1a and skin tone and blond hair difference between Africans and Europeans
R1a and R1b contributed in the diffusion of A111T mutation of SLC24A5 that explains why there is a 35 percent of skin tone difference between Africans and Europeans with majority of the variations being within South Asia. This is because the distribution pattern of A111T allele (rs1426654) matches perfectly the spread of Indo-European R1a and R1b lineages in the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia and Europe. The mutation is believed to have been passed during the Early Neolithic period to the populations in the Near Eastern regions, which explains why the Neolithic farmers in most parts of Europe already carried A111T allele, although at a lower frequency when compared to modern populations in Europe and Southern and Central parts of Asian populations.
This light skin allele has been traced to various ethnic groups in northern sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among the Sahel and Savannah zones whose inhabitants were tribes of R1b-V88 cattle herders such as the Hausa and Fulani. This presupposes the existence of A111T allele among all R1b populations before the Pre-Pottery Neolithic split between V88 and P297. The incidence of this allele is in equal proportions among the R1a and R1b populations. The existence of blond hair among the distribution of the haplogroup R1a is strongly related to the genetics of this group while red hair is believed to have been spread probably by R1b.
22 Sep 2016 / rarikola / 0
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