Y-DNA Haplogroup R
There are many subgroups of haplogroups, but one of the most widely spread and know is the haplogroup R. Haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is widely spread among the modern civilization and populations we know today. The haplogroup R is mostly found in Europe, North America and Asia, but it is also frequent in South America, Africa and Australia. It is believed that this haplogroup has formed more than 19,000 years but not more than 35,000 years, in the Paleolithic era.
Of the many subgroups or subclades of the haplogroup R are R1 and R2. The haplogroup R1 or haplogroup R-M173 is connected to the M173 mutation, hence the name. This haplogroup is mostly found in Europe and Asia with some parts of East Asia excluded. Even though the exact origin of the haplogroup R1 is still unknown, but it is considered to be a direct and immediate descendant of R. The haplogroup R1 is majorly divided into two subgroups, R1a and R1b.
The haplogroup R1a or haplogroup R-M420 is also most frequent in Europe and Asia going from South Asia and Siberia and Central Europe, reaching parts of the Scandinavian countries. As for its origins, many believe that it originated somewhere on the Balkans or in areas close to Pakistan. Despite originating in these areas, the haplogroup R1a is mostly found in Germany where it spreads out in the neighboring countries, through Russia and into Asia.
The haplogroup R1b or haplogroup R-M343 has spread out mostly through Western Europe, from France, Spain and Great Britain through Central Europe and Russia, into Asia and parts of Northern and Central Africa. The presence of the haplogroup R1b in North America, especially in Native Americans have brought up many questions about the origins of this haplogroup.
Family Tree DNA. R1a and all subclades Y-chromosome Haplogroup Project. Web. Retrieved from:
ISOGG. Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades. 2016. Web. Retrieved from:
Peter A Underhill. The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a. 2014. Web. Retrieved from:
30 Jan 2016 / rarikola / 0