Haplogroup O – China
Understanding Y-DNA Haplogroup O
Haplogroup O mutated in East Asia approximately 35,000 years BP and it descends from Haplogroup NO. A man with mutated gene was likely part of a relocating tribe whose advancement was obstructed by high mountain extends; a percentage of the tribe was constrained north , prompting Haplogroup N , though another group, including the progenitor of Haplogroup O, proceeded to east over the southern Siberia and at the end crossed into Asia. Today, Haplogroup O can be distinguished crosswise over Asia and Oceania , and is common in 80% to 90% of men in East and Southeast Asia .
Modern populations inside East Asia might have been gotten from northern advancements of southern populaces amid the Last Glacial Maximum 18,000 to 21,000 years before present or from male contribution from Central Asia via the Silk Road. Further researchers suggest that northern populaces extended prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (22,000 to 34,000 years back) while the southern inhabitants postponed extension until after the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum), yet then extended a great deal more quickly than the northern populaces . It is likely that the northern inhabitants could exploit the megafauna of the “Mammoth Steppe” while the southern populaces needed to sit tight for hotter and more steady atmospheres before they could get to more abundant food resources , to bolster their populace expansion.
Haplogroup O was found at a high recurrence in Hainan men, and achieved 100% in one of the native populaces. Hainan Island was part of the East Asian mainland in the last Ice Age, and thus in the way of human migration from Southeast Asia to East Asia. It is thought, subsequently, that Hainan aboriginals are immediate predecessors of the first vagrants into East Asia.
The Han ethnic group is roughly 92 % of total Chinese population. The remaining 8% consists of 55 minorities. Both Han Chinese and non-Hun minorities are predominantly positive to Haplogroup O. Even though the percentage is higher in Han ethnic group., Haplogroup O was found in 78% of The Hui Ethnic group DNA. 70% of Tibetian minority subgroup were tested positive for Haplogroup O ., 62% of 6 predominantly Muslim groups from west China belonged to Hg O and 37.5% of Northern minority group consisting of nomadic people like Mongols, Manchu , Yugur etc. were positive to Hg O .
During the last Ice Age, which ended approximately 15,000 years ago, Japan was connected to the continent . The first major migration to Japan happened approximately 30 000 years BP. Around 52-55% of Japanese men are positive to Haplogroup O. Same Haplogroup was found in 83.7% of Balinese men and evidently it was brought to Bali with the Austronesian expansion from Southeast Asia.
The Andaman Islands are situated between India and Thailand. DNA analysis suggested that Andamanese people have Australo-Melanesian ancestors , although they look like African pygmies. Nicobar Islands are located south of the Andaman Islands. Y-DNA tests showed that 30% of the Andamanese and 100% of the Nicobarese were positive to Haplogroup O.
Polynesian Triangle is drawn by connecting the points of Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Studies showed a major presence of Haplogroup O within Tonga and French Polynesia and have detected the haplogroup within Austronesian speaking people. Quite possibly Polynesia has a dual genetic origin with a male-dominated contribution from Melanesia. The research found that 65.8% of men had a Melanesian genetic contribution, whereas 28.3% could be traced to Asian origin , of which 27.9% were Haplogroup O.
Haplogroup O is one of the most diverse haplogroups with 31 unique subclades and are categorized in three major subgroups, O1, O2, O3. Subclade O1 consists of five deeper subclades whereas Subclade O2 has seven; Subclade O3 is by far the more complex with a total of 19 identified subclades.
30 Aug 2016 / rarikola / 12
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