Y-DNA Haplogroup F
Haplogroup F also known as F-M89 and its sub-clades compose of more than 90 % of the male population including almost everyone outside Africa. First appeared in N. Africa about 45,000 years ago and is believed to exhibit a “second-wave” of expansion exiting Africa. However. The location of this lineage’s rise to expansion was observed to be India or somewhere close to South Asia or the Middle East.
The vast majority of individual males fall into its immediate descendant haplogroup major-clade GHIJK, which branches subsequently into Haplogroup G and Haplogroup HIJK. Under Haplogroup HIJK, sub-clades include H and IJ, K with IJK down streaming into I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S and T. All haplogroup F descendants show a pattern of radiation. From S. Asia (H and K) and the Middle East (G and IJ). Apart from these, haplogroup F has four other intermediate descendant sub-clades, rare in the modern population F-M89* also called F(xGHIJK), F1, F2 and F3.
The broader haplogroup F (F-M89) has sometimes been called FT to distinguish it from its rare sub-clade F-M89*.
Map By Maulucioni – Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11194442
From the image above this mega-haplogroup contains lineages found in Asia and, suggesting that its immediate predecessor haplogroup CF may have been carried out of Africa.
Distribution of haplogroup F
Virtually all individuals carrying F-M89 belong to the major-clade GHIJK and subsequently sub-clade G, H, IJ and K being more common in contrast to F-M89*, F1, F2 and F3 that are relatively rare worldwide.
The descendants of F are found in population speaking Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burma, Indo-European and Turkic languages in China, Nepal and India. The sub-clade F-M89* has been observed in Siberia and in Indonesia.
This basal major-clade has neither been identified in living males nor in ancient remains. This suggests that populations with high proportions of descendant sub-clade haplogroups L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S and T were predominating the geographical region way before the modern era!
Haplogroup G, J and R dominated the Caucasus and West Asia region
Haplogroups H, L and R dominated South Asia
In Europe, haplogroups I, J, P, Q, R and N prevailed
In East Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania, K, M, N, O and S haplogroups reigned.
Haplogroups P, Q and R dominated Central Asia
In N. America, Native American peoples are of the Haplogroup Q.
Basal F-M89* sub-clade, has been reported among less than 6% of males in India. In Iran, males from Hormozgan Province carried this haplotype. This has also been reported in North East Africa
F1 sub-clade is found in Sri Lanka
F2 reported in minorities from South China borderlands, Thailand, Burma and Vietnam.
F3 a newly defined found in India and Nepal.
This Haplogroup with its many defining mutations have puzzled geneticist with work still ongoing on its database.
15 Jan 2016 / rarikola / 3
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