Haplogroup C-M130 – Mongolia, Siberia, North America, Oceania
Haplogroup C (M130) is one of two branches of Haplogroup CF alongside Haplogroup F. this haplogroup is found in continents ancient populations except in Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males, indigenous to Central Asia/Siberia, North America, and Oceania.
Haplogroup C (M130) came into existence shortly after the modern Haplogroup CT into existence, from which stemmed Haplogroup CF, and in turn Haplogroup C, derived at least 60,000 years before present.
Although Haplogroup C (M130) has its highest frequencies in the indigenous populations of Russian Far East, Mongolia, Australia, Polynesia, and at moderate frequency in Korea and Manchu people, it displays a high diversity among modern Indian populations. It is therefore thought that Haplogroup C either originated or underwent a long period of evolution within the greater South Asian coastal region.
In addition, Males carrying C (M130) are believed to have migrated to the Americas, carried by Na-Dené-speaking peoples into the northwest Pacific coast of North America, 6000-8000 years before present.
The distribution of Haplogroup C (M130) is limited to populations of northern and eastern Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. Due to the age of Haplogroup C, numerous secondary SNP mutations have had time to occur and accumulate, and many regionally important sub-branches of M130 have been identified.
The basal haplogroup C* (M130*), the subclade, C1b2b (M347) and the sub-subclade C1b2b1 (M210) were carried by Aboriginal Australian males before European settlement.
Low levels of C* (M130*); carried by males from Sri Lanka, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia.
P33 (C1b2a1a): found at highly frequently among Polynesian males.
M8 (C1a1); an ancient and rare lineage, specific to the Ryukyuan populations of Japan.
M38 (C1b2a); found among some local populations within Micronesia, Indonesia, some Islands of Polynesia, and Melanesia (especially New Guinea).
M356 (C1b1a1); detected in low frequencies in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Arabia, Nepal, and northern China.
B66 (C1b1a); found in South, Central, and Southwest Asia.
M93 (C2a) is found randomly in Japan populations.
M48 (C2b1b); found frequently among northern Tungusic peoples, Mongolians, Oirats, Kazakhs, Kalmyks, Yukaghirs, Koryaks, Nivkhs, Itelmens, and Udegeys. Occurs moderately among Tuvinians, Kyrgyz, and southern Tungusic peoples, also Buryats, Yakuts, Uzbeks, Chukchi, Uyghurs, Tajiks, and Karakalpaks.
P53.1 (C2c); found in low frequencies in the Xinjiang Sibe males, Mongolia and among Evenks, Xizang Tibetan, Ningxia Hui, Gansu Han and Xinjiang Uyghur.
P343 occurs at a high frequency in Lembata male population, and low frequencies in Flores, Timor, and Pantar.
P55 (C1b3) is found in the highlands of New Guinea.
P39 (C2b1a1a) is found among several indigenous peoples of North America (some Na-Dené, Algonquian, and Siouan-speaking population).
F2613/Z1338 (C2e): in both Central and East Asia.
M407 (C2e1a1a); found in Han Chinese, Bai, Cambodian populations, Tujia, Manchu, Yakut and Uyghur populations at low frequencies.
21 Jul 2017 / rarikola / 2
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