Y-DNA Haplogroup A1b1
The term haplogroup used by scientists to define individual main branches or closely associated branches in family tree genetics of all humans. The phylogenetic tree of Y-DNA named the most recent patrilineal common ancestor is Y-chromosomal Adam. It is the most common ancestor of all humans living on the Earth.
The haplogroups of Y-DNA are described and identified by Y-DNA SNP marker series on Y-chromosomes. The term ‘subclade’ is used to describe a terminal SNP in the phylogenetic tree which is farthest down in a Y-chromosome tree of phylogeny.
The nomenclature of Y-DNA haplogroups is developed by Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) using capital letters of English Language from A to T including subclade further using lower case letter and number. The YCC is shorthanded the nomenclature of haplogroups and related subclades using the first letter of the main haplogroup following a dash and name of terminal SNP.
Haplogroups are helpful to trace ancestry back to a single individual. The paternal and maternal Line features of haplogroup help to trace out ancestors from one’s mother to her mother and beyond and for one’s father to his father and beyond.
Haplogroup A consists of lineages which derive its roots from earliest branches of Y chromosome tree of Human. It is the macro-haplogroup of African people and ancestor of all modern haplogroup. Haplogroup A has oldest branches and thought to be occurring before 140,000 years. It is the foundational clade of patrilineal lineage of human population formally known as clade I.
Haplogroup A has most basal subclades as “A00″, “A0”, “A1” and “A2-T”. The subclade “A00″ was discovered in 2012 in the Y chromosome of the man with African and American ancestors who submitted his DNA sample for genealogical analysis. Its discovery again is found in higher concentration in Bangwa people. The subclades of haplogroup A i.e. A0-P305, A1b1a-M14 and A1a-M31 are limited to Africa and The subclade A1b1b-M32 is confined to nearly Africa. The subclade A2-T of haplogroup A is an ancestral lineage of haplogroup BT which is non-African haplogroup.
The subclade A1b1a1a-M6 is usually found among Khoisan peoples. The haplogroup A-M6(xA-P28) is found in 28% of a sample of Tsumkwe San and 16% of a !Kung/Sekele, and haplogroup A2b-P28 in 17% Tsumkwe San tribes.
The clade A1b1b-M32 contains the most numerous members of haplogroup A and is mostly found in Eastern and Southern Africa.
The subclade A1b1b1-M28 has only found in the Horn of Africa. Around 5% in Ethiopia.
The subclade A1b1b2a-M51 are essentially among Khoisan peoples 55% Nama, 28% Khoisan, 22% !Kung/Sekele, 21% Tsumkwe San. branches , it also has been found with lower frequency among Bantu peoples of Southern Africa,
The subclade A1b1b2b-M13 is predominantly spread among Nilotic populations in East Africa and northern Cameroon. It is distinct from the A subclades that are found in the Khoisan-speaking populations and remotely associated other A subclades. This finding hints to an ancient separation of this particular subclade.
Haplogroup A-M13 has been found in 52.8% of Southern Sudanese, in around 46.4% of the Nuba of central Sudan, in 27.8% of Western Sudanese, and 12.5% of local Hausa people.
9 Jan 2016 / rarikola / 3