Genetic History of Africa
Haplogroup A in Africa
Haplogroup A plays a significant role in the evolution of human beings. It is considered to be a foundational haplogroup of all known patrilineal lineages within the confines of modern human history whose place of origin is believed to be in Africa. In many ways, haplogroup A has been considered as the Y-chromosomal Adam of the modern human beings. The bearers of haplogroup A have been traced in Southern Africa among the Bushmen hunter-gatherers, more specifically, among the San people. Further evidence of this haplogroup A is also related to the Nilotic groups found in Eastern parts of Africa.
However, it is worth noting that the haplogroup A lineages found in Southern Africa are haplogroup A subclades of lineages that has been found in some parts of Africa, giving credence that this group settled in Southern Africa after migrating from other parts of the continent. Modern humans left Africa in two groups. One through the southern route and the other group through the northern route that comprises of haplogroup A with shared mutation among the subgroups distributed in different geographic locations that happened way back between 43, 000 to 53, 000 years. Haplogroup A is widespread in Asia.
Haplogroup A subclades
The haplogroup A subclades A0 and A1 was detected among the people living in Northwest African, West Africa and Central Africa. Again, in Central-Northwest Africa, where the oldest subclades of haplogroup A’s have been exclusively found and is believed that this is where the patrilinear ancestor of the modern human beings are believed to have been originated. The subclade A0 is believed to have originated in northwestern parts of Africa. The haplogroup A subclades include “A00”, “A0”, ”A1” also known as “A1a-T” and the “A2-T”. It has its origins in the sub-Saharan Africa and believed to have been around in the last 140, 000 years ago or maybe even more as 340, 000 years ago. Among the people having the highest percentage of haplogroup A in the modern world are the Khoisan, Bushmen, Beta Israel and Nilo-Saharans of Southern Sudanese people.
Check also other Haplotype A Map
Haplogroup A in Europe
Among the European men, haplogroup A is rare and isolated in a few cases. It has been traced in a few Irish and Scottish families with surnames such as Boyd, Taylor and Logan and all of these belong to the same subclade A1b1b2 (M13). This is a subclade predominantly present in East African countries such as Ethiopia and Sudan as well as among the Pygmy groups found in Central Africa. Traces of the same subclade has been found among the Niger-Congo speakers. Other place where this subclade has been found is in neighboring countries like Egypt and as far as in places in Arabian Peninsula. Other evidences of this subclade have been found in far off place such as Jordan, Palestine, Sicily, Yemen, Omani, Turkey and Sardinia. The Levantine people such as the Jews, Phoenicians and other immigrants within the Roman Empire Neolithic period or later are believed to have brought it to Europe.
In Norway, Finland and other parts of the Eastern England traces of haplogroup A subclade A1 exists. This subclade is predominant along western parts of Africa such as Cape Verde, Morocco (among the Moroccan Berbers), Guinea-Bissau and Mali lending credence it is from here that it found itself in Europe during the Paleolithic period. This is further adjutanted by the sub-Saharan admixture discovered among the ancient DNA samples that were traced back to Mesolithic Scandinavia.
The Daughters of Eve
The Majority of the modern Europeans are descendants of one of the seven “clan mothers” that lived during Ice Age. These were Ursula, Xenia, Velda, Helena, Katrina, Tara and Jasmine. Other 29 clan mothers related to the rest of world’s human kind descended from which the North and South America earliest colonizers emerged. Their names are Ina, Aiyana/Ai, Djigonasee/Sachi and Chochmingwu/Chie. The haplogroups used in identifying each of the “clan mothers” were based upon groups of genetic sequences (“polymorphisms”) in distinct families.
Haplogroup B in Africa, Far East and South America.
It is in Haplogroup B that Ina’s clan is identified according to the human family tree. This was from a single East African woman that we found the current maternal lineage surviving unbroken to the present day. The haplogroup B having a common ancestry with most of the Europeans migrated between 39, 000 and 52, 000 years before present. Haplogroup B moved to Eastern Asia from the Central Asia before reaching Japan and Southeastern Pacific Archipelagos as well as in some Siberian populations.
In addition, haplogroup B has been found in large numbers amongst Polynesians. The group is also present in Koreans, Tibetans and the Mongolian population in moderate levels. Haplogroup B is also present in Chile among the Aymaras in the Northern part. They have also been spotted among the Quechua-speaking Andean people in Peru. However, among the dwellers of Northern Amazon, it is the lowest and completely absent among the Southern populations. The Haplogroup B has also been traced among the North American populations, dominantly in the Southwest parts such as Kiliwa and slightly in Jemez Pueblo.
Check Also other Haplotype B Maps:
Haplogroup E in Middle East and Europe
The haplogroup E originally traced to East Africa inhabitants before spreading to the Northern Africa and introduced later to other parts of West Africa populations and eventually to some parts of the Middle East between 16, 400 and 39, 000 years before present. This evidence is collaborated by the migration of this group to the west of the Mediterranean Sea. This group from the Mediterranean is believed to have crossed over and proceeded to Europe and distributed among the present inhabitants of Western Europe, parts of Southeast Europe, places the Near East, Northwest Africa and the Northeast Africa. There is evidence of a small percentage of this group among Britain’s population a number of theories explaining their arrival exists.
Haplogroup E and the Bantus of East Africa
Though haplogroup E is believed to have originated in East Africa, the Bantu group seems to have acquired the haplogroup E quite recently through assimilating some of the Afro-Asiatic males living in the Northeastern Africa. This explains why the haplogroup E lineage of Bantus subclade E1b1a/E3a is about 10, 000 years old. The haplogroup E and the Bantu languages spread to parts of the Sub-Saharan of Africa by the Bantu intermediaries during the Bantu expansion period about 3500 years ago.
The E1b1a, which is exclusively African lineage that is believed to have expanded from parts of northern Africa to sub-Saharan and the large equatorial Africa alongside the Bantus’ agricultural expansion. During this process of migration and expansion, the Bantus’ paternal haplogroup E lineages replaced the previously Pygmy, Khoisan (hunter-gatherers) and the Afro-Asiatic inhabitants of the southern and the southeastern Africa after successfully invading and conquering these groups. This explains why the Bantus share ancestry origins more closely with the Pygmies and not the Africans living in the Northeast Africa. This explanation increasingly reinforces the notion that haplogroup E is not originally the paternal lineage of the Bantus, Negroid and Nilotes populations but it was only acquired much later.
Check also other Haplotype E Maps
21 Apr 2017 / rarikola / 1