Mongoloid- Haplogroup C2-M217
Haplogroup C2 (M217), is the most frequently occurring branch of the Major Haplogroup C (M130). This haplogroup is believed to have originated in eastern or central Asia, approximately 14700-5100 BC.
M217 is found at high frequencies among Central Asian peoples (Mongolians), indigenous Siberians (Kazakhs), and some Native peoples of North America. Also particularly found in males belonging to peoples such as the Buryats, Evens, Evenks, and Udegeys.
One specific major subclade within Haplogroup C2 has tweaked anthropologists because it is thought to represent a direct patrilineal descent from Genghis Khan belonging to the Borjigin clan, however, this is not certain.
Haplogroup C3c is found in ten different ethnic minorities in northern China and has been identified as a possible marker of the Manchu Aisin Gioro. However, it is completely absent from Han Chinese.
Haplogroup C2 (M217) stretches from Central Europe and Turkey to the Wayuu people of Colombia and Venezuela, and also from the Athabaskan peoples of Alaska to Vietnam and further to the Malay Archipelago.
Found at minimal frequencies in Eastern Europe, as a legacy of the13th Century invasions or migrations of the Huns, Turks, and Mongols. M217 is found at especially high frequencies among the following peoples; Kalmyks, Buryats, Koryaks, Hazaras, Daurs, Manchus, Itelmens, Sibes, Mongolians, and Oroqens. It is also distributed moderately among Ainu of Japan, Han Chinese, Hani and Hui people, other Tungusic peoples, Koreans, Nivkhs, Tuvinians, Altaians, Uzbeks, and Tujia.
The highest frequencies of Haplogroup C2 are found among the populations of Far East Russia and Mongolia. Haplogroup C2 (M217) is the only major clade of Haplogroup C (M130) found among Native Americans Na-Dené tribe.
In Japan, relative frequencies of haplogroup C2 (M217) has been found among Ainu people and populations from the Kyūshū Island of Japan. In Vietnam, Hanoi, C2 has been found in low to moderate frequencies.
C2 Subclade distribution
The subclades of C2 are distributed as follows;
M93 Observed sporadically in Japanese populations.
P39 Found in several North America native populations (some Na-Dené, Algonquian, and Siouan-speaking populations).
M48 found frequently in Koryak people and randomly among Evens, Evenks, and Yukaghirs.
M77: found frequently among northern Tungusic peoples, Mongolians, Oirats, Kazakhs, Kalmyks, Yukaghirs, Koryaks, Nivkhs, Itelmens, and Udegeys. Occurs moderately among Tuvinians, Kyrgyz, and southern Tungusic peoples, also Buryats, Yakuts, Uzbeks, Chukchi, Uyghurs, Tajiks, and Karakalpaks.
M407: Found with low frequency in Korea, Cambodia, Bai, Han Chinese, Japanese populations, Manchu, Tujia, Yakut and Uyghur populations.
9 Jan 2016 / rarikola / 2
Tags: Ainu, Altaians, Buryats, Chukchi, East Russia, Hani, Hui, Itelmens, Kalmyks, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs, Koreans, Koryaks, Manchu, Mongolia, Mongolian, Mongolians, Mongoloid, Nivkhs, Oirats, Tajiks, Tujia, Tungusic peoples, Tuvinians, Udegeys, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Yakut, Yakuts, Yukaghirs
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